Modern social assistance, in which governments provide financial support to the unemployed, has been around since the Great Depression, and it’s been controversial for just as long.

The primary complaint by opponents is that it removes the incentive to work, resulting in efforts to make welfare as unpleasant as possible, from below-poverty-line payments and complicated qualification rules to judgmental monitoring and, in the U.S., dehumanizing drug tests.

But there’s an approach to poverty building momentum lately called the Basic Income Guarantee and in the Dutch city of Utrecht the theory is about to be put to the test.