According to a 2018 Toronto Street Needs Assessment, there were 533 “rough sleepers” in Toronto — that is to say, those homeless Torontonians who would rather sleep outdoors than stay in the overcrowded shelter system. However, well known street nurse, activist, and author Cathy Crowe estimates there could currently be between 1,000 to 1,500 individuals sleeping either on the streets or in homeless encampments.

If Crowe is right, what explains the nearly threefold increase?